Ki Hajar Dewantara was born in Yogyakarta on the 2nd of May 1889. He was born with a name "Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat". He came from "Kraton" family in Yogyakarta. Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat, when he reached 40 years old measured in "Caka" years, changed his name to Ki Hadjar Dewantara. Since then, he didn't use his knighted anymore in his first name. It was because of his will to be able to get close to the society freely, physically and generously.
His life journey was really decorated with struggle and dedication for the sake of his nation. He graduated from the elementary school at ELS (Dutch Primary School) He then continued his study to STOVIA (native elementary school), but he didn't complete it because of illness. After that, he worked as a journalist at some newspapers such as, Sedyotomo, Midden Java, De Express, Oetoesan Hindia, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer dan Poesara. In his time, he included a reliable writer. His writings were very communicative, sharp and patriotic, so that they could inspire the readers to the spirit of anti-colonialism.
Besides his diligent as a young journalist, He was also active in a social and political organization. In 1908, He was active as in the field of propaganda named "Boedi Oetomo" to socialize and provoked the Indonesian society awareness of the importance of unity and integrity in the national and the state at that time.
Then, together with Douwes Dekker (Dr. Danudirdja Setyabudhi) and dr. Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo, on the 25th of December 1912, he established Indische Partij (the first political party of Indonesian nationalism). This party had a purpose for Indonesian independence.
They tried to register this organization to get a status of legal entity in the Dutch colonial government. However, through the governor general of Idenburg, the Dutch government tried to block the party's presence by refusing the registration on the 11th of March 1913. Reason for refusal was that the organization was deemed able to raise the feelings of nationalism to the society, so that the society could rebel the Dutch government.
After the rejection of "Indische Partij", He helped form Bumipoetra committee in November 1913. The committee became a competitor to the committee of the celebration of the Dutch Nation Hundred Years of Independence. The committee of Boemipoetra criticized the Dutch government that was celebrating their hundred years of Independence from French colonization, by withdrawing money from the people to finance the celebration.
For the celebration, He criticized through his writing called "Als Ik Eens Nederlander Was" (If I were a Dutch) and, "Een voor Allen maar Ook Allen voor Een" One for all, But all for one either).
However, because of the writing, through the governor general of Idenburg, the Dutch government sentenced without trial, such as internering (waste law). He was then exiled to Bangka island.
Douwes Dekker and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo who felt his compatriot was treated unfairly, published a writing to defend Ki Hajar Dewantara. But the Dutch government considered that the writing was to provoke Indonesian people to rebel to their government. Consequently, both of them, Douwes Dekker and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo, were also sentenced a waste law. Douwes Dekker was exiled to Kupang, while Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo was exiled to Banda island.
After their return from exile, with his compatriots, Ki Hajar Dewantara established a national college, "Nationaal Onderwijs Instituut Tamansiswa"(Tamansiswa national college) on the 3rd of July 1922. This college extremely emphasized its students to the education of nationalism feelings in order to love their nationality, and struggled for their independence.
Not a few obstacles faced to maintain Taman Siswa. The Dutch conoal government tried to inhabit by issuing the Ordination of wild school on the 1st October 1932. But, with persistence, they struggled for their rights, so that the ordination was finally revoked.
In the middle of his seriousness paying attention education world in TamanSiswa, Ki Hajar Dewantara kept on writing. But the writing themes switched from politic to education and culture with nationalist-minded writings. He had written hundred writings. It was from his writings he put the foundations of national education for Indonesia.
Meanwhile,in the days of Japanese colonization, activities in the field of politic and education wwere still continued. When Japanese government formed "Pusat Tenaga Rakyat" (Putera) in 1943, Ki Hajar became one of the leaders besides Ir. Soekarno, Drs. Muhammad Hatta and K.H. Mas Mansur.
After the time of independence, Ki hajar Dewantara had ever served as the first education minister. His name Ki Hadjar Dewantara was immortalized not only a hero of education(The father of National Education)which was taken from his birthday on the 2nd of May, as National Education day, But was also determined as a hero of natonal movement Pahlawan Pergerakan Nasional through a presidential decree RI No.305,1959, on the 28th of November 1959. He also received another award, Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Gadjah Mada in 1957 .
Two years after receiving the tittle, he passed away on the 28th of April 1959 at Yogyakarta, was buried there.
Translated BY KEY (Kurnia English Yard)
Sabtu, 05 Juni 2010
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